## Free Sample

## HNCB 43 Hydraulics Construction and the Built Environment

Solution.pdf**Unit Learning Outcomes **

**LO1 Apply concepts of physics to develop solutions for hydrostatic and hydrodynamic problems. **

**LO2 Calculate forces related to fluids at rest and in motion. **

**LO3 Develop practical solutions for the distribution of fluids within correctly sized pipes. **

**LO4. Calculate the hydrostatic pressure exerted on substructures for a given context.**

**Assignment Brief and Guidance **

Scenario: The company you work for has recently taken on work involved with hydraulic structures as someone who has recently graduated from a programme which includes significant civil engineering hydraulics you are asked to join the management team with respect to these projects.

Task 1. a) Water flowing in a pipe, is taking water from a reservoir some 100m above a city what is the pressure in the pipe as its enters the city? If a open channel was to bring the water into the city from the same reservoir, what would the pressure be in the opne channel. Explain briefly why.

**b) What are the two main forces of resistance to water flow in pipes? **

**c) How does water temperature affect these forces? **

**d) Explain the difference between laminar and turbulent flow. **

**e) What is Reynolds Number and how is it related to turbulent flow? **

2 HNC/HND Construction and the Built Environment

**f) What is the boundary layer and how is it affected by the roughness of the surface over which water is flowing? **

**g) How is the resistance to water flow reduced either in a pipe or in an open channel? **

**h) The water supply to a rapidly expanding town was laid out many years ago when the town was small and appeared to have a stable population. Outline how additional supplies can be piped in without disrupting the current supplies **

Task 2 a) Water is needed to supply a canal system, which may require up to 30m3s-1 the channel is 2 metres wide

calculate the depth of flow at maximum given that the Manning n value of this stretch of the channel is 0.02. b) A proposal has been suggested that the excess water above a flow rate of 25m3s-1 could be diverted through

a pipe to a reservoir some 2km distant . An automatic system would be installed which opened a valve into this pipeline as soon as the flow exceeded this level. The pipe would need to be able to take water at the rate of 10m3s-1. Using the Darcey Weisbach equation for laminar flow calculate the head loss through a pipe with a friction factor of 0.006 and a pipe diameter of 1.5m. c) The reservoir (in part b) is 50m below the surface of the river. Comment on whether it will be possible to

achieve the 10m3s-1 flow and what steps could be taken. d) Comment on the differences between pipe flow and open channel flow and estimate the dimensions of an

open channel 2m deep that would be needed to conduct 10m3s-1 to reservoir.

Task 3 a) Estimate the head loss in a pipe line of 10km length and 1.4 m in diameter carrying water at the rate of

30m3s-1 to supply a town. The Darcey Weisbach friction factor is 0.004 and the minor losses are 10 times the velocity head. b) The difference in height between the start and end of the pipe line is 20m. What additional pressure would

need to be supplied by a pump to achieve the required delivery? c) As an alternative design the feasibility of using a bigger diameter of pipe needs to be considered. Find the

smalledst diameter of pipe that would achieve this. d) Discuss the real life factors that would go into deciding whether to use a pump based system or one based on

gravity alone.

Task 4

**a) Ground water is found at a depth of 1.5m and a below ground car park is being built in this area. The depth **

**of the car park is 9m to allow for two levels of parking. Calculate the force on the boundary walls and the upwelling force on the floor. The dsimensions of the car park are 20m x 60m. Assume that this is fresh water with a density of 1000kgm-3 b) What materials and structures would be needed for the outer walls of the car park bearing in mind that they **

also act as the main structural support for the building. c) What structure and materials would be suitable for the flooring?

End of Assignment

3 HNC/HND Construction and the Built Environment

**Some additional notes **

**1. This assignment should be presented in the form of a report using each task as a separate main heading and **

**the sub – section as sub headings. 2. Where information is being taken from outside sources it is essential that proper referencing is done according to the Harvard system with a brief indication in the text such as the author’s name and publication date if from a journal and other appropriate notifications as shown in the Harvard Referencing leaflet available from the library or on moodle and a full reference given at the end of the report under the heading of “bibliography” 3. Where you are working together with another student be aware that Turnitin will show this as plagiarism **

**unless you make the actual report different from the person with whom you are working **

**Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria **

**Pass Merit Distinction **

**LO1 Apply concepts of physics to develop solutions to hydrostatic and hydrodynamic problems **

**LO1 **

**D1 Assess pipework sizes to determine their P1 Evaluate a hydraulic condition **

**efficiency in a given in order to determine the **

**context parameters of the problem. P2. Illustrate a proposed solution to a hydraulic problem, using drawings or models. **

**M1 Compare proposed solutions to a hydraulics problem, highlighting the merits of different solutions **

**LO2 Calculate forces related to fluids at rest and in motion **

**P3 Solve a Darcy-Weisback equation for a given pressure pipe system P4 Solve a Manning’s equation for given open channel flow situation. **

**M2. Discuss the differences and similarities between different types of hydrodynamic systems and calculations. **

**LO2 LO3 **

**D2 . **

**LO3 Develop practical solutions for the distribution of fluids within correctly sized pipes **

**P5 Calculate the head loss for a given pipeline. **

**P6 Define pipe sizes for a given set of flow parameters. **

**M3 Evaluate pipe sizes to determine the flow type that will occur. **

**4 HNC/HND Construction and the Built Environment **

**LO4 Calculate the hydrostatic pressure exerted on substructures for a given context **

**P7 Calculate the pressure exerted on a foundation wall in a given context. **

**P8 Calculate the pressure exerted on a subsurface floor in a given context. **

**M4 Evaluate the ability of a given subsurface wall and floor to resist the forces exerted by liquid in a given context. **

**D2 Present proposals for subsurface structures in response to the hydrostatic pressure of a given context. **

**D2 Present proposals for subsurface structures in response to the hydrostatic pressure of a given context. **

**D2 Present proposals for subsurface structures in response to the hydrostatic pressure of a given context. **

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